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Month: March 2023

DNSSEC Explained: The Basics You Need to Know

Understanding DNSSEC is crucial for website owners who want to be safe and protected from malicious attacks. In this blog post, we’ll cover the basics of DNSSEC, including what it is, why it’s important, and how it works. So, without any further ado, let’s begin!

What is DNSSEC?

DNSSEC (Domain Name System Security Extensions) is a protocol that adds a layer of security to the Domain Name System (DNS). The DNS is responsible for translating domain names (like into IP addresses that machines can understand. It was created to handle a vulnerability in the DNS that allows malicious actors to intercept DNS queries and redirect regular users to fake websites.

Why is DNSSEC important?

Without DNSSEC, it’s easy for hackers to spoof DNS responses and redirect users to malicious websites. This is known as a DNS cache poisoning attack, and it is commonly initiated to steal sensitive information like login credentials or credit card numbers. It provides a way for website owners to protect their users by ensuring that the DNS responses they receive are authentic and haven’t been tampered with.

How does it work?

DNSSEC uses a system of cryptographic keys to sign DNS records. When a user requests a DNS record, the DNS server returns a signed response that includes a digital signature. The user’s computer can then verify the signature using the public key of the DNS server. If the signature is valid, the user can be confident that the response is authentic.

Implementing DNSSEC

Implementing DNSSEC is a straightforward process, but it does require some technical knowledge. Here are the basic steps involved:

  1. Generate keys: The first step is to generate a pair of cryptographic keys – a private key and a public key. The private key is kept secret and used to sign DNS records, while the public key is published in the DNS for users to verify signatures.
  2. Publish the key: The DNSSEC public key is published in the DNS as a DNSKEY record. This record is signed with the private key to ensure that it can’t be tampered with.
  3. Sign DNS records: Once the DNSSEC key is in place, DNS records can be signed using the private key. This ensures that any DNS responses sent to users can be verified as authentic.
  4. Test: Finally, it’s important to test DNSSEC to ensure that it’s working correctly. This involves checking that DNS responses are being signed and that users can verify signatures using the public key.


DNSSEC is an essential protocol for website owners who want to protect their users from malicious attacks. By adding a layer of protection, they are able to strengthen the security of their Domain Name System (DNS) infrastructure. 

Complete breakdown of DNS propagation

Do you need help getting your website to show up properly on the web? Then, read on to find out what DNS propagation is and how it can help make your website accessible worldwide!

Defining the DNS propagation

DNS propagation is the process of updating the Domain Name System (DNS) records across the global web of DNS servers. Each DNS server stores DNS records, including the IP address associated with a domain name. When a DNS record is updated due to an expired domain name registration or a change in hosting provider, the DNS propagation process occurs. Every DNS server must be updated with the correct information to ensure that any web users can accurately reach the site they were looking for.

This process can take a few minutes to several hours to complete. When a DNS record is changed, the time for full propagation depends on the Time to Live (TTL) value set on your DNS records. The lower the TTL value, the faster the changes will be seen across the web. The TTL value determines how frequently each DNS server stored in the global system must re-query the requested records. After the TTL value expires, the requesting DNS server will be updated with the new information, triggering DNS propagation.

Steps of DNS propagation

Step one of DNS propagation is a zone transfer, which verifies that all DNS records have been updated to the correct values. During a zone transfer, the DNS server requests information from an authoritative DNS server to ensure that all DNS records have been updated with the latest changes.

The second step is DNS querying. This step involves querying the domain’s DNS records stored on remote servers in various geographical regions. The DNS record query requests information such as the IP address associated with the domain name. This step ensures that all DNS records are accurate and up-to-date.

The final step of DNS propagation is to update the regional DNS servers. In this step, the DNS servers located in each region are contacted and requested to update their stored records. This step ensures that all DNS servers located in the region are informed about the changes before the TTL values expire and full Domain Name System propagation is completed. After all the regional DNS servers have been updated, the process of DNS propagation is complete, and the domain is now accessible to global users.

Is it possible for potential issues?

Potential issues during the DNS propagation process can occur. One possible issue is Name Server errors. Name server errors can happen due to DNS records not being updated correctly. Cloud-based DNS services use a lot of name servers to ensure reliable connections. If there is an issue with one of the name servers, then it could cause your domain to be unreachable by particular visitors.

Another potential issue is Time to Live (TTL) values. TTL values determine how quickly changes to a domain’s DNS records propagate worldwide. If the TTL values on a domain’s DNS records are set too high, then it will take longer for DNS propagation to complete. Conversely, if the TTL values are set too low, then this may cause issues with the reliability and stability of the domain.

Finally, DNS server failures can also potentially affect this process. If a DNS server fails, this could cause issues with accessing the domain or cause slow loading times. It can also be challenging to troubleshoot and diagnose why the server failed, as many possible causes could have caused it. To help prevent and avoid DNS server failures, it is crucial to ensure that your DNS servers are constantly monitored and maintained.


DNS propagation is essential for any website owner to understand and maintain, as it helps ensure the global availability of their website. Understanding the steps, potential issues, and troubleshooting techniques whit it to ensure that your website is always up and running.

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